The P - block elements

Elements of group 13 to 18 of the long form of the periodic table from the P-block elements. In the 'P' block elements, the last electron enters into the 'p' orbital of the outermost shell. 'p' block elements are coming under representative elements along with 's' block elements. They are called so, because they exhibit regular trends in properties with in each group and period.
Some general characteristics of 'p' block elements
Atomic and ionic radii of 'p' block elements decrease on moving from left to right and increase from top to bottom in any group. Along a period, there is a progressive increase in the nuclear charge of the atoms while the electrons are added to same outer most shell. This causes a decrease in atomic size from left to right along a period. Down a group the effective nuclear charge decreases due to addition of new shells and this results is an increase of atomic size.Ionization enthalpy of 'p' block elements increases along a period and decreases down the group. Along a period, electron affinity of 'p' block elements increases from left to right due to decrease in atomic size. Down a group electron affinity decreases due to increase in atomic size. Electronegativity of 'p' block elements increases along a period and decreases down the group. Decrease is due to the increase in atomic size. Metallic character decreases along a period and increases down a group. The increase in metallic character down a group is due to increase in atomic size and decrease in ionization enthalpy. Oxidizing properties decrease down the group and increase along a period. 'p' block elements exhibit a variety of positive and negative oxidation states. The maximum oxidation state formed by 'p' block elements is (x-10) where x is the group number. As the atomic number increases, the ns2 electrons fail to participate in chemical bond formation and hence bonds are formed only from the 'p'- electrons. This phenomenon is inert pair effect.

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